L’histoire nous enseigne qu’une dérive conduit vite du souci légitime de l’identité ou de la justice sociale à l’extrémisme

Tribune. Coup de force contre le Capitole, le FBI alerte sur des menaces d’insurrections armées, les chefs d’état-major rappellent l’attachement de l’armée à la Constitution, Washington en état de siège… Des faits marquants en eux-mêmes, mais surtout des symptômes d’un engrenage sociétal qui vient de loin, surgit brutalement et en est arrivé à un point de basculement possible.

C’est l’illustration d’un processus délétère que connaît et reconnaît l’expérience de l’humanité. Une dynamique que l’on retrouve aujourd’hui dans de nombreux pays et qui menace les fondements démocratiques. La démocratie américaine serait-elle une nouvelle fois « exemplaire », peut-être même en avance, mais pour le pire cette fois ?

Il ne faut ni jouer à se faire peur avec le point Godwin ni à l’inverse négliger l’atout essentiel que constituent les enseignements du passé pour limiter les risques de récidive tragique. L’expérience humaine a été trop souvent entendue comme un récit plus que comme une source d’enseignements pour le présent.

Le sociétal surgit parfois dans la violence

Avec le recul de l’histoire et des sciences de l’homme, ceux-ci convergent pourtant sur certains points forts. Une grille de lecture a ainsi été élaborée par la Fondation du Camp des Milles et sa chaire Unesco sur la « convergence des mémoires ». Elle s’appuie sur une analyse interdisciplinaire et intergénocidaire d’engrenages récurrents dans l’histoire pour mieux prévenir et combattre au présent les processus d’extrémisation et de radicalisation.

L’assaut du Capitole à Washigton le 6 janvier est le symptôme d’un engrenage sociétal qui vient de loin. A l’extrême, l’histoire des tragédies génocidaires est aussi celle d’un sociétal mal compris et mal maîtrisé par le politique..

Sur cette base, l’essentiel que nous rappelle la situation américaine est probablement que le sociétal déborde le politique censé l’exprimer et le canaliser. Dans sa dynamique complexe et multidimensionnelle, émotionnelle, psychosociale, économique, sociale, politique, culturelle, le sociétal surgit parfois dans la violence. Et il surprend l’observateur parfois trop absorbé par l’écume des jeux politiques pour prendre suffisamment en compte les courants d’un sociétal qui lui échappe largement.

La question identitaire y contribue aujourd’hui fortement tant elle est présente dans l’espace public, aux Etats-Unis comme ailleurs. L’histoire nous enseigne qu’une dérive conduit vite du souci…

Par Alain Chouraqui, président de la Fondation du Camp des Milles-Mémoire – Le monde

فضاء الآراء | مرآة المجتمع، ملفات، قضايا، تحليلات، آراء وافكار.. صوت من لا صوت له

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Témoignage – Jamail, réfugiée afghane: « Je suis très inquiète pour ma famille, toujours en danger face aux talibans à Kaboul »

En plus des ressortissants français des Afghans menacés par les talibans sont évacués peu à peu vers la France. C'est le cas de Jamail, une jeune femme de 32 ans qui travaillait comme interprète et assistante pour les journalistes français à Kaboul.

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