Les 100 jours de Joe Biden : « L’impact des réglementations sur l’économie est intrinsèquement difficile à quantifier »

Tribune. Depuis l’élection présidentielle de novembre 2020, les investisseurs se sont principalement concentrés sur les efforts du président Biden pour soutenir l’économie américaine, y compris le dernier plan de relance de 1 900 milliards de dollars (1 595 milliards d’euros). Cependant, les investisseurs ne doivent pas perdre de vue les éventuels changements réglementaires qui pourraient mettre fin à une grande partie de la déréglementation de l’époque Trump.

Trois domaines – l’environnement, la santé et la technologie – risquent d’être les plus touchés.

L’impact des réglementations sur l’économie est intrinsèquement difficile à quantifier. Les agences fédérales ne sont tenues de réaliser des analyses coûts-avantages que pour les règles jugées « économiquement significatives », définies comme ayant un effet annuel sur l’économie d’au moins 100 millions de dollars.

Le président Trump, soucieux de réduire les charges réglementaires pour les entreprises, avait commencé son mandat par un décret demandant aux agences de supprimer deux réglementations anciennes pour chaque réglementation nouvelle. L’administration Trump a également réinterprété les lois existantes pour les rendre plus favorables aux entreprises.

En comparaison, l’une des principales priorités de Joe Biden est la lutte contre le changement climatique. Pour ce faire, il prévoit d’inverser une centaine de mesures de l’administration Trump qui visaient les politiques de l’ère Obama en matière d’environnement et de santé publique.

Des infrastructures vertes

Parmi les initiatives annoncées par le président démocrate, citons la réintégration de l’accord de Paris, le relèvement des normes en matière d’économie de carburant et d’émissions dans le but de parvenir à zéro émission carbone d’ici 2050, et le retrait du plan quinquennal de Trump sur le développement du forage en mer.

Toutefois, comme Donald Trump, son successeur n’envisage pas de solutions au changement climatique axées sur le marché, comme le système de plafonnement et d’échange qui a été utilisé avec succès pour résoudre le problème des pluies acides. Il n’envisage pas non plus de taxer les émissions de carbone. La solution plébiscitée est d’imposer des restrictions sur l’utilisation des combustibles fossiles et de développer des alternatives à ceux-ci.

Par Nicholas Sargen – Maître de conférences à Darden School of Buisness, University of Virginia, et consultant en économie / Le Monde

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